Resistance of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria to chemical and physical means of disinfection (literature review)
I.V. Petrov1,2, T.Kh. Amirova1, L.V. Petrova1,3, F.S. Petrova1,4
1Mari State University: 1 Lenina str., Yoshkar-Ola, 424000, Russian Federation;
2Kazan State Medical University: 22 Butlerova str., Kazan, 420012, Russian Federation;
3Republican Tuberculosis Health Center: 22 Bolnichnaya str., Yoshkar-Ola, 424037, Russian Federation;
4Regional Office of Rospotrebnadzor in the Republic of Tatarstan: 30 Bolshaya Kracnaya str., Kazan, 420111, Russian Federation
The purpose of this review was to analyze current ideas about the resistance of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria to disinfection methods, taking into account the degree of reliability of the results obtained and the compliance of research with the criteria of evidence-based medicine. Studies on the resistance of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTMB) to disinfectants were selected from searchable electronic databases such as PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), Web of Science (http://webofknowledge.com), Scopus (https://www.scopus.com), eLIBRARY (https://www.elibrary.ru) and ResearchGate (https://www.researchgate.net). The search was performed by keywords: Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Infection, Mycobacteriosis. The authors selected 113 literature sources from 235 found, including keywords. After analyzing the literature selected by search words, 35 sources were included in this study. The result of the search shows that in practice, the main methods of disinfection for NTMB are chemical disinfection (using disinfectants containing chloramine, calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, silver ions) and physical (using high temperature, UV radiation).
Keywords: non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, mycobacteriosis, disinfection, disinfectology, epidemiology.
Amirova Tanzilya Khafizovna – Associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Medicine, Mari State University, ORCID ID 0000-0002-0666-7418
Petrova Lyudmila Vitalevna – Head of the Bacteriological Laboratory, Republican Tuberculosis Health Center of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Mari El; Assistant Professor of the Department of Biochemistry, Cell Biology and Microbiology, Mari State University
Petrova Firuza Salavatovna – Specialist, Department of Epidemiological Surveillance, Regional Office of Rospotrebnadzor in the Republic of Tatarstan (Tatarstan); Assistant Professor of the Department of Fundamental Medicine, Mari State University. ORCID ID 0000-0003-3721-5649
Skin antiseptics: yesterday – today – tomorrow
T.N. Shestopalova1, A.Yu. Skopin1, F.A. Mukabenov1
1Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute of the Federal Service for surveillance on consumer rights protection and human wellbeing: 18 Nauchny proezd, Moscow, 117246, Russian Federation;
2The State Education Institution of Higher Professional Training The First Sechenov Moscow State Medical University under Ministry of Health of Russian Federation: 8, building 2, Trubetskaya street, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation;
3Federal Budget Institution of Science "Central Research Institute of Epidemiology" of the Federal Service for surveillance on consumer rights protection and human wellbeing: 3а Novogireevskaya str., Moscow, 111123, Russian Federation.
Despite the large number of currently existing effective skin antiseptics, the problem of non-compliance with the requirements for their use remains relevant. An analysis of the use of skin antiseptics in 34 regions of Russia showed that the main problems in this area are their insufficient number, inappropriate use and, as a result, a violation of the processing technology of staff hands and skin of patients, which is one of the main reasons for the spread of health care-associated infections (HAI).
Keywords: skin antiseptics, analysis of the activities of medical organizations, lack of skin antiseptics, standard operating procedures (SOPs), misuse of skin antiseptics.
Skopin Anton Yur’evich – Сandidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor, Director Deputy of Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute; Associate Professor of the General Hygiene of Medico-Preventive Faculty I.M. Sechenov’s First Moscow State Medical University. ORCID ID 0000-0001-7711-9489
Mukabenov Fedor Aleksandrovich – Senior Laboratory Research Assistant of Sterilization Laboratory of Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute, Intern of Central Research Institute of Epidemiology. ORCID ID 0000-0002-5631-0775
Means for hand hygiene of medical staff. What to choose?
1Petrozavodsk state University: 33 Lenin Ave., Petrozavodsk, Karelia Republic, 185910, Russian Federation;
2City polyclinic № 4: 1 Neubrandenburgskaya str., Petrozavodsk, Karelia Republic, 185034, Russian Federation.
Hand hygiene one of the most important factors in preventing of infectious diseases spread in healthcare facilities. The actual microflora varies is depended on the profile of the facility. This requires a differentiated approach to the choice of hand antiseptic taking into account the differences in the sensitivity of microorganisms to their composition. The need for frequent use of it requires confidence in their safety for staff. The article is presented the results of a survey of polyclinic employees on their assessment of hand hygiene products and review of available literature on the requirements for hand hygiene, the antimicrobial effect of chemicals that make up skin antiseptics and soaps, their toxicity and impact on the skin.
Keywords: hand hygiene, skin antiseptic, hand sanitizer, soap.
Substantiation of quantitative relationship of actve ingredients in insecticide binary mixtures for overcoming insect resistance
O.Yu. Eremina, V.V. Olifer
Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute of Federal Service in Supervision of Protection of Rights of Consumers and Prosperity of a Man: 18 Nauchniy proezd, Moscow, 117246, Russian Federation.
The analysis of the Unified Register of State Registration Certificates of the Eurasian Economic Commission for binary mixed insecticides is carried out. The effect of mixtures of pyrethroids (cypermethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin) with thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos in different ratios with respect to German cockroaches of the susceptible strain S-NIID and multi-resistant OBN was studied. It has been shown that only the highly insecticidal pyrethroid acts on the sensitive cockroach strain, and only the second component of the mixtures (thiamethoxam or chlorfenapyr) acts on the resistant strain. In mixtures with the ratios of cypermethrin: chlorpyrifos 4: 1 and 1: 1, only cypermethrin acts on the susceptible cockroach strain, only chlorpyrifos acts on the resistant strain; however, at a ratio of 1 : 10, both components act on a susceptible strain, only chlorpyrifos is resistant. The theoretical substantiation of the principles of the design of binary mixed insecticide compositions is given.
Keywords: binary mixtures, German cockroach, resistance.
Olifer Veronika Valentinovna – Candidate of Science in Biology; Leading Researcher of Laboratory of Problems of Disinsection of SRDI. Orcid ID 0000-0002-4736-7905
Characteristic of efficiency and toxicity of modern insectoacaricides, larvicides, insect growth regulators, and repellents. Part 4. Insect development regulators, microbiological preparations, repellents
S.A. Roslavtseva, M.V. Bidevkina
Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute of the Federal Service for surveillance on consumer rights protection and human wellbeing: 18 Nauchny proezd, Moscow, 117246, Russian Federation.
Review of modern insect growth regulators: juvenoids (methoprene, hydroprene and pyriproxyfen) and a chinin-synthesis inhibitors wich used in Russia at the present time or the purposes of medical disinsection, microbiological means (activ ingradienеt) – λ- endotoksin. Bacillus thuringitnsis var. israilensis (Bakticd, Bakticd SK, Larvicid-paste) Given the structural formula, of entomo-acarological, toxicological characteristics repellents of nature origin (essential oils) and synthetic (dimethylftalat, DEET, Salsiden, IR3535, Akrep).
Keywords: insect growth regulators, juvenoids, chinin-synthesis inhibitors, repellents, DEET, dimethylftalat, Salsidin, IR3535, Akrep, toxicity.
Bidevkina Marina Vasil’evna – Doctor of Medical Science, Head of Laboratory Concerning Toxicology in Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute. Orcid ID 0000-0001-6433-899X
Approbation of Devices for Disinsection of Burrows of Small Mammals in the Gorno-Altai High-Mountain Natural Plague Focus
N.E. Ermakov, A.N. Matrosov
Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute "Microbe" of the Rospotrebnadzor: 46 Universitetskaya str., Saratov, 410005, Russian Federation
Disinsection remains one of the most radical methods of epizooties suppression (eradication) and reduction of risk of human infection. In 2014–2016, sporadic cases of human bubonic plague were registered in the territory of the Gorno-Altai high-mountain natural focus. In the process of insecticide treatments in the settlements of the grey marmot, long-tailed souslik, and Pallas’ pika, modern insecticide means were approbated: mechanical and motor dusters, pyrethroids and mixed preparations. High anti-epizootic and anti-epidemic effectiveness of their application allowed for the decrease of the area and intensity of plague epizooties, as well as preventing anthropogenic spread of this dangerous infection.
Keywords: disinsection, fleas – vectors of plague microbe, plague epizooties, insecticides, and effectiveness of disinsection.
Matrosov Alexander Nikolaevich – Docotr of Biological Sciences, Leading Research Officer at the Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute "Microbe" of the Rospotrebnadzor. ORCID ID 0000-0003-4893-7188
Natural centers of tularemia of Sakhalin region
V.P. Popov1, N.A. Malitskaya2, S.V. Ryabov3
1Antiplague center of the Federal Service for surveillance on consumer rights protection and human wellbeing: 4 Musorgskogo str., Moscow, 127490, Russian Federation;
2Center of Hygiene and Epidemology in Sakhalin Region Federal Service for surveillance on consumer rights protection and human wellbeing: 3-а Chekhova str., Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 693020, Russian Federation;
3Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute of the Federal Service for surveillance on consumer rights protection and human wellbeing: 18 Nauchniy proezd, Moscow, 117246, Russian Federation
The review article analyzed the epizootic and epidemic activity of natural centers of tularemia during more than 50 years of observation. Archival materials of the "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Sakhalin Region," the South Sakhalin Anti-Noise Department of the "Khabarovsk Anti-Noise Station" and the "Anti-Noise Center" of the Russian Federation were used in the work.
Keywords: natural centers of tularemia, main carriers of tularemia agent, epizootic and epidemiological activity of the centers.
Malitskaya Nadezhda Aleksandrovna – Biologist, Head of Laboratory of Particularly Dangerous Infections of 2Center of Hygiene and Epidemology in Sakhalin Region of Rospotrebnadzor
Ryabov Sergey Vasilevich – Candidate of Biological Sciences, Leading Specialist, Head of Laboratory of Deratization Problems of Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute of Rospotrebnadzor. ORCID ID 0000-0002-7863-7576
Clinical and epidemiological aspects of driving and dissemination of tuberculosis infection in psychiatric hospitals
Republican Psychiatric Hospital, Balti: 114 Gagarina str., town Balti, 3100, Republic of Moldova.
Established that in 85±3.4 % of cases, mental patients are admitted to inpatient treatment without any results of analyzes and studies. The proportion of newly diagnosed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis at the time of hospitalization is only 3.3 %, in the first 3 days – 28.9 %, on days 4–6 – 43 %, on days 7–9 – 17.4 % and on the following days hospital stay – 7.4 % of patients. The index of introduction of sources of tuberculosis infection is 2.9. There is a direct and strong correlation between the frequency and length of stay of patients in psychiatric hospitals (PS) and their lung tuberculosis. With initial contact with the source of tuberculosis infection, the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis is 1.3–1.4 per 100 mental patients. With repeated and subsequent stays in the hospital, lasting up to 25 days or more, the risk of the disease increases 3–4 times. In the conclusion, conclusions are presented on a comprehensive solution to the problems associated with the timely diagnosis and conduct of anti-tuberculosis measures to prevent the introduction and spread of tuberculosis infection in the patient.
Keywords: psychiatric hospital, mental patients, pulmonary tuberculosis, epidemic process, introduction of tuberculosis infection, diagnosis of tuberculosis, risk factor, incidence.
To the question of evaluating a sanitary-anti-epidemic regime of the organization implementing medical activity
M.I. Samoylov, A.S. Pankov
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Orenburg State Medical University" of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation: 6 Soviet str. / 45 Gorky str. / 7 Dmitrievskiy per., Orenburg, 460000, Russian Federation
Ensuring the infectious safety of medical care remains relevant [6, 8]. To prevent the development of infections associated with the provision of medical care (IMSP), a system of organizational, sanitary-prophylactic and anti-epidemic measures has been introduced, united by the concept of sanitary-anti-epidemic regime. Currently, to assess the sanitary-anti-epidemic regime of a medical organization, a quality criterion is used – the requirements of SanPiN 188.8.131.5230-10 "Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for organizations engaged in medical activities". However, quality, as a subjective concept, does not always ensure the reliability of the system. Assessing the effectiveness of the sanitary anti-epidemic regime causes the greatest difficulty due to the fact that the level of registration of AIPS does not coincide with the calculated one. Experts believe that the true number of AIPS is at least 2–2.5 million cases against 30 thousand included in the official statistics . Microbiological monitoring, along with informational support of the epidemiological surveillance base of the etiological structure of AMI , can reveal the level of microflora circulation at hospital facilities, in which free-living microorganisms can be dangerous as a source of ISMI . Therefore, the obtained results can be used as a criterion for assessing the effectiveness of the sanitary-anti-epidemic regime. A search was undertaken for works devoted to assessing the effectiveness of the anti-epidemic regime based on the results of microbiological monitoring. Similar work on the review could not be found. In the available literature, the results of microbiological monitoring are quite widely presented. The leading role of gram-negative bacteria in the development of bronchopulmonary and purulent-septic nosocomial diseases has been confirmed . The species composition of the microflora of the hospital environment of the intensive care unit of the surgical hospital was determined and the characteristics of the isolated microflora were presented . The necessity of optimizing microbiological monitoring aimed at evaluating the disinfection and sterilization measures carried out  is substantiated. An attempt to compare the results of the assessment of the sanitary-anti-epidemic regime on the basis of quality criteria (meeting the requirements of instructive and methodological materials) and the data of species identification of microorganisms from environmental objects, the resistance of isolated strains to disinfectants as a criterion of the effectiveness of the sanitary-epidemic regime determined the purpose of the study.
Keywords: infections associated with the provision of medical care; microbiological monitoring; production control program; quality and effectiveness of the anti-epidemic regimen; hospital strains.
Pankov Aleksandr Sergeevich – Doctor of Medical Science, Head of the Department of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases of The Orenburg State Medical University. ORCID ID 0000-0003-4994-6633
Kuzmenko V.I. (1949-2020)